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Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine \ Pulmonary: Pulmonary Edema II: Noncardiogenic Pulmonary Edema

    • The Berlin definition is now used to define ARDS.
    • Recent epidemiologic studies reveal that outcomes for patients with ARDS are improving.
    • Administering oxygen via high-flow nasal cannula may be an alternative to noninvasive positive pressure ventilation or mechanical ventilation in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure.

Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine \ Pulmonary: Pulmonary Edema I: Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema

    • Meta-analyses reveal that noninvasive positive pressure ventilation decreases mortality in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema

Gastrointestinal Tract and Abdomen: Malignant Diseases of the Peritoneum and Retroperitoneum

    • Hyperthermic intra-abdominal chemotherapy treatment in the setting of colorectal carcinomatosis, gastric carcinomatosis, pseudomyxoma peritonei
    • Enhanced understanding of the pathophysiology of pseudomyxoma peritonei

Gastrointestinal Tract and Abdomen: Benign Diseases of the Peritoneum and Retroperitoneum

    • Hyperthermic intra-abdominal chemotherapy treatment in the setting of colorectal carcinomatosis, gastric carcinomatosis, pseudomyxoma peritonei
    • Nonsurgical treatment of peritonitis
    • Treatment strategies for intra-abdominal desmoid tumors

Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Treatment Options

    • Risk factors for patients at risk for developing multiple squamous cell skin cancers include exposure to UV solar radiation, long-term immunosuppression, exposure to ionizing radiation, and certain genetic disorders
    • Treatment modalities can be divided into surgical and nonsurgical therapies, although surgical therapy is generally the mainstay of treatment
    • Treatment options should be stratified for low- and high-risk SCC. Primary treatment options for low-risk SCC include (1) curettage and electrodesiccation, (2) excision with postoperative margin assessment (POMA) with 4 to 6 mm margins, and (3) radiation therapy (RT) for nonsurgical candidates. Options for high-risk SCC lesions include (1) Mohs surgery or resection with complete circumferential peripheral and deep margin assessment, (2) excision with POMA with wider surgical margins and primary or delayed repair, and (3) RT for nonsurgical candidates

Sarcomas of the Breast

    • Breast sarcomas are typically larger than adenocarcinomas and grow rapidly
    • Skin changes suggest angiosarcoma, and punch biopsy is diagnostic
    • Mastectomy is recommended in most cases
    • Routine nodal sampling is not recommended
    • Five-year survival for breast sarcoma is 60%
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